Ahead of the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow, Scotland on 31 October–12 November 2021, Indonesia confirmed that it would finalize the Paris Rulebook in the Paris Agreement. Indonesia itself has also set a target of reducing carbon emissions by 29 percent with its own efforts, and up to 41 percent if there is international support.
The COP was created to encourage the commitment of all countries towards a net-zero emission condition. Including Indonesia, which in accordance with the mandate, must take the initiative towards net-zero emissions. This effort is manifested in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) which must be traceable and reported to be transparent.
“There needs to be a fair transition in achieving this commitment. Developing countries and developed countries have different capacities. Of course, we can't do this alone. It requires a shared commitment and moving together in achieving net-zero emissions,” said Director General of Climate Change Control at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Laksmi Dwanthi.
He added that Indonesia has four main missions, First, the implementation of the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Second, the fulfillment or completion of the Paris Rulebook. Third, a statement of long-term commitment to 2050, and fourth towards zero-emission.
Meanwhile, Laksmi explained, the Indonesian government is currently in the process of finalizing the drafting of a Presidential Regulation on Carbon Economic Value. The draft will regulate all mechanisms of carbon economic value which include carbon trading, carbon offsets, performance-based payments and levies on carbon.
Meanwhile, Mahawan Karuniasa, founder of the Environment Institute, said that a number of crucial issues related to climate change presented by experts would dominate the dialogue at COP26. One of the main issues that are likely to be raised loudly is the question of the commitment of developed countries to climate financing as stated in the Paris Agreement.
"Therefore, it is very important for delegates from the least developed countries (LDC) and developing countries, including Indonesia, to collect commitments from developed countries related to climate financing in the amount of US$ 100 billion per year until 2020 which has been promised by developed countries since COP15 in 2009," said Mahawan.
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry for New and Renewable Energy (EBT) Muhammad Yusrizki said Kadin's participation in the activity was a milestone for Kadin's commitment to invite the entire private sector to support the implementation of Indonesia's Net Zero Emissions commitment.
"The energy sector, of which electricity is a part, accounts for 34 percent of total national emissions, so decarbonization of the energy sector is an important part of efforts towards net-zero emissions," said Yusrizki some time ago.
As is well known, the Commitment in the Nawa Cita of President Joko Widodo's administration became one of the foundations for the preparation of the First NDC Indonesia document, which outlines Indonesia's transition to a low-emissions and climate-resilient future.
Referring to Indonesia's readiness to reduce GHG emissions by 26% by 2020 on its own, the NDC is structured to increase the actions and conditions that support the achievement of more ambitious goals after 2020 that will contribute to efforts to prevent global temperature rises below 2oC and pursue efforts to limit global temperature rise to 1.5oC compared to pre-industrial times.
In this effort, in accordance with state obligations/commitments, the NDC has planned climate change mitigation and adaptation actions as integrated actions to build resilience in maintaining food, water, and energy resources.
Indonesia has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) in 2030 by 29% on its own and up to 41% with international support, compared to no mitigation action or business as usual (BAU). In NDC it is explained about five sector categories and their contribution in efforts to reduce GHG 29% from BAU 2030, namely: emissions (17.2%), energy (11%), agriculture (0.32%), industry (0.10%), and waste ( 0.38%).
As for adaptation, Indonesia's commitments include increasing economic resilience, social security, and livelihoods, as well as ecosystem and landscape resilience as well as conditioning for climate resilience.
This story was produced as part of the 2021 Climate Change Media Partnership, a journalism fellowship organized by Internews' Earth Journalism Network and the Stanley Center for Peace and Security.
Banner image: Filipino climate activists Jefferson Estela, Mitzi Jonelle Tan, Jon Bonifacio and Marinel Ubaldo / Credit: Their social media accounts.